## Posts

### Calkin-Wilf Tree

I gave this talk at CMI STEMS final camp 2024. Definitions Before proceeding, we must be clear about what our title means. What do you mean by Counting? What do we mean by the term counting? We are going to prove that Rational numbers are countable . That is, there is a bijection between natural numbers and rational numbers. A bijective function $f:X\rightarrow Y$ is a one-to-one (injective) and onto (surjective) mapping of a set $X$ to a set $Y$. Note that every bijection from set $X$ to a set $Y$ also has an inverse function from set $Y$ to set $X$. But how are we going to create the bijection? We will first create a bijection between the Natural numbers and Positive rationals. Let $f(1),f(2),\dots$ be the mapping from natural numbers from $\Bbb{N}\rightarrow +\Bbb{Q}$. Then, note that there is also a bijection from $\Bbb{N}\rightarrow -\Bbb{Q}$ by simply mapping $i\in \Bbb{N}\rightarrow -f(i)$. And to create the bijection from $g:\Bbb{N} \rightarrow \Bbb{Q}$, c
Recent posts

### Orders and Primitive roots

Theory  We know what Fermat's little theorem states. If $p$ is a prime number, then for any integer $a$, the number $a^p − a$ is an integer multiple of $p$. In the notation of modular arithmetic, this is expressed as $a^{p}\equiv a{\pmod {p}}.$ So, essentially, for every $(a,m)=1$, ${a}^{\phi (m)}\equiv 1 \pmod {m}$. But $\phi (m)$ isn't necessarily the smallest exponent. For example, we know $4^{12}\equiv 1\mod 13$ but so is $4^6$. So, we care about the "smallest" exponent $d$ such that $a^d\equiv 1\mod m$ given $(a,m)=1$.  Orders Given a prime $p$, the order of an integer $a$ modulo $p$, $p\nmid a$, is the smallest positive integer $d$, such that $a^d \equiv 1 \pmod p$. This is denoted $\text{ord}_p(a) = d$. If $p$ is a primes and $p\nmid a$, let $d$ be order of $a$ mod $p$. Then $a^n\equiv 1\pmod p\implies d|n$. Let $n=pd+r, r\ll d$. Which implies $a^r\equiv 1\pmod p.$ But $d$ is the smallest natural number. So $r=0$. So $d|n$. Show that $n$ divid

### My experiences at EGMO, IMOTC and PROMYS experience

Yes, I know. This post should have been posted like 2 months ago. Okay okay, sorry. But yeah, I was just waiting for everything to be over and I was lazy. ( sorry ) You know, the transitioning period from high school to college is very weird. I will join CMI( Chennai Mathematical  Institue) for bsc maths and cs degree. And I am very scared. Like very very scared. No, not about making new friends and all. I don't care about that part because I know a decent amount of CMI people already.  What I am scared of is whether I will be able to handle the coursework and get good grades T_T Anyways, here's my EGMO PDC, EGMO, IMOTC and PROMYS experience. Yes, a lot of stuff. My EGMO experience is a lot and I wrote a lot of details, IMOTC and PROMYS is just a few paras. Oh to those, who don't know me or are reading for the first time. I am Sunaina Pati. I was IND2 at EGMO 2023 which was held in Slovenia. I was also invited to the IMOTC or International Mathematical Olympiad Training Cam